Glossary

Digital.ai technical glossary and definitions of digital transformation technology terms. 

Agile feature estimation

In agile development, a feature is a chunk of functionality that delivers business value. Features can include additions or changes to existing functionality. For planning purposes, some agile methodologies also use the notion of "work items" that can include features, bug fixes, documents, and other artifacts. But features are the main unit of planning. 

Agile methodology

The various agile scrum methodologies share much of the same philosophy, as well as many of the same characteristics and practices. But from an implementation standpoint, each has its own recipe of practices, terminology, and tactics. Here we have summarized a few of the main agile software development methodology contenders.

Common codebase

A common codebase is, simply, shared by as many programmers on the team as possible. This is only practical if the team is using test-first programming, refactoringcontinuous integration, and a single coding standard. It is also greatly assisted by agile pair programming.

Agile project management

Whether you have just wondered about agile project management, or actually dipped a toe in, you would probably agree: the role of the project manager can seem impossible. Customers expect quality software on time and on budget. But wait! The requirements just changed. Again.

Agile release planning

What is a release plan? Planning and estimating in the agile world depend on a single key metric: the development team's velocity, which describes how much work the team can get done per iteration. Given a team's known velocity for its last project (if it is known), a release plan represents how much scope that team intends to deliver by a given deadline.

Agile software development benefits

Agile methods grew out of the real-life project experiences of leading software professionals who had experienced the challenges and limitations of traditional waterfall development on project after project. The approach promoted by agile development is in direct response to the issue associated with traditional software development both in terms of overall philosophy as well as specific processes.

Agile sprint planning

The iteration or sprint planning meeting is for team members to plan and agree on the stories or backlog items they are confident they can complete during the sprint and identify the detailed tasks and tests for delivery and acceptance.

Iteration lengths typically range between one and four weeks. The team holds a planning meeting at the beginning of each iteration to break down each of the features scheduled for the iteration into specific technical tasks. Iteration or agile sprint planning meetings generally last from two to four hours - any more than that and you may be spending too much time in unnecessary planning; less time than that and you may not be doing enough planning and collaborating.

Agile sprint tracking

As teams progress through an iteration, it is important to understand the state of the iteration. As dozens or even hundreds of tasks are worked on within the iteration, measuring progress and remaining effort (or, "to do") become critical. This is especially true on larger projects.

Within an iteration, the remaining effort represents the true state of an iteration at any given time. As the iteration progresses, the remaining effort required to complete the iteration's tasks should obviously be decreasing. Not all tasks will necessarily be identified during iteration planning. Some may only be identified as current tasks are progressed and completed. By consistently managing the total remaining effort of all the tasks, a very clear picture of the overall iteration's status is understood. If at any given point during the iteration it appears that the work is not approaching zero by the end of the iteration, then the team and/or management may elect to take appropriate measures, such as reducing scope.

Agile velocity

Agile velocity is an extremely simple, powerful method for accurately measuring the rate at which scrum development teams consistently deliver business value. To calculate velocity of your agile team, simply add up the estimates of the features, user stories, requirements, or backlog items successfully delivered in an iteration.

Android & iOS app signing

Both  Android and  iOS require developers to “sign” their apps before they can be distributed and installed. An app is signed with a certificate identifying a developer as the author of that app and verifying the app has not been modified since it was last signed. Apps are self-signed with private certification keys.

App code obfuscation

Code obfuscation is transforming a software program into code that’s difficult to disassemble and understand yet maintains its original functionality. In this way, the software remains completely functional but extremely resistant to reverse engineering and tampering attacks.

App security

App security refers to the practices and policies that shield high-value mobile applications from reverse engineering, tampering, and other app-centric attacks. App security includes application hardening to obscure code, runtime application self-protection (RASP) and self-healing measures, White-Box Cryptography to encrypt critical data & keys, and real-time app threat telemetry for closed-loop threat intelligence as the original. In this way, the software remains completely functional but extremely challenging  to reverse engineer.

Application attacks

An attack can occur whenever an organization’s mobile app is accessible “in the wild” — apps available via public app stores.

Application hardening

Application hardening is a process of taking a finished application and making it more difficult to reverse engineer and tamper. Combined with secure coding practices, application hardening is a best practice for companies to protect their app's IP and prevent misuse, cheating, and repackaging by bad users.

Agile development success

Projects that exhibit agile development success seem to share several key characteristics that are summarized below. For some methodologies these correspond exactly with individual practices, whereas for other methodologies there is a looser correspondence.

Code refactoring

Code refactoring is the process of clarifying and simplifying the design of existing code, without changing its behavior. Agile teams are maintaining and extending their code a lot from iteration to iteration, and without continuous refactoring, this is hard to do. This is because un-refactored code tends to rot. Rot takes several forms: unhealthy dependencies between classes or packages, bad allocation of class responsibilities, way too many responsibilities per method or class, duplicate code, and many other varieties of confusion and clutter.

Continuous integration

Traditional software development methods don't dictate how frequently or regularly you integrate all of the source on a project. Programmers can work separately for hours, days, or even weeks on the same source without realizing how many conflicts (and perhaps bugs) they are generating. Agile teams, because they are producing robust code each iteration, typically find that they are slowed down by the long diff-resolution and debugging sessions that often occur at the end of long integration cycles. The more programmers are sharing the code, the more problematic this is. For these reasons, agile teams often choose to use continuous integration.

Deployment automation

Deployment automation enables software deployment to testing and production environments automatically with a single action. Automation in software deployment reduces risks for production deployments and provides efficiency in release pipelines.

DevOps

What is DevOps? DevOps has become an overloaded buzzword that means a lot of different things to a lot of people. That's a challenge when you are trying to understand what DevOps is or define DevOps. Instead of trying to define DevOps, we are going to describe the foundational concepts that different people associate with DevOps and the history of how the DevOps movement evolved to help you get a holistic view. Here are the eight foundational concepts you have to know.

Enterprise app distribution

An Enterprise App Distribution platform allows organizations to securely deploy and manage policy-enabled mobile apps through a variety of distribution methods, including direct links to users, a corporate portal, a private app store, or MDM/EMM systems.

Enterprise app store

An Enterprise App Store is an HTML or native iOS, Android, or Windows private app catalog for mobile workers in the extended enterprise to discover and download corporate-sanctioned and secured mobile apps. A best-of-breed enterprise app store is custom-branded, solicits feedback and ratings from users, does not require device management, and sits on top of an easy-to-use admin console that secures any app and supports the full app lifecycle.

Kanban methodology

Kanban is a method for managing the creation of products with an emphasis on continual delivery while not overburdening the development team. Like scrum, kanban is a process designed to help teams work together more effectively. 

Mobile app wrapping

Mobile app wrapping is a method for applying business or security logic to individual apps that have already been compiled.

Mobile application management

Mobile application management (MAM®) refers to the workflow for security, governance, and distribution of mobile apps in the enterprise. Best-of-breed app management provides app-level security for any app, deploys apps to every user in the extended enterprise because it is device management agnostic, manages the complete app lifecycle, and enables multiple app distribution methods, including an intuitive, custom-brandable enterprise app store.

Mobile authentication

Mobile authentication establishes user authentication for the enterprise app store and for the mobile apps themselves without maintaining an entirely separate set of user credentials.

Pair programming

Agile teams committed to frequent, regular, high-quality production find themselves striving to find ways to keep short-term and long-term productivity as high as possible. Proponents of pair programming ("pairing") claim that it boosts long-term productivity by substantially improving the quality of the code. But it is fair to say that for a number of reasons, pairing is by far the most controversial and least universally-embraced of the agile programmer practices.

Release orchestration

Release orchestration is the process of orchestrating the activities required to deliver an application from code commit to production, enabling organizations to manage and optimize the flow of value across the DevOps value stream. Release orchestration automates many tasks that are often done manually by release management. With release orchestration, DevOps teams are able to model software delivery pipelines, coordinate automated tasks with manual work, integrate a variety of tools for building, testing, and deploying software, and use data to identify bottlenecks and areas for potential areas for improvement. Release orchestration is also known as application release orchestration (ARO), application release automation (ARA) or continuous delivery and release automation (CDRA).

Release pipeline

A release pipeline is made up of the manual and automated steps needed to move a code change from development, through build and test activities, to deployment in production. Manual steps can be executed by technical team members or business stakeholders and include both release processes and approval gates. Automated steps are executed by the tools within the DevOps landscape.

Runtime application self-protection

Digital.ai’s application and mobile app protection solutions go beyond Runtime Application Self-Protection (RASP) by providing layered and adaptive app protection and data encryption ensuring apps are protected against run-time attacks, are defended against reverse engineering, and are able to maintain secure communications with key encryption.

Scrum methodology

Scrum is an agile project management methodology or framework used primarily for software development projects with the goal of delivering new software capability every 2-4 weeks. It is one of the approaches that influenced the Agile Manifesto, which articulates a set of values and principles to guide decisions on how to develop higher quality software faster.

Scrum project management

Use scrum project management to deliver working products with more business value. Scrum project management is a methodology for managing software delivery that comes under the broader umbrella of agile project management. It provides a lightweight process framework that embraces iterative and incremental practices, helping organizations deliver working software more frequently. Scum project management provides project progress via a series of iterations called sprints; at the end of each sprint the team produces a potentially deliverable product increment.

Test driven development

Agile teams often find that the closer the unit test coverage of their code is to some optimal number (somewhere between 75% and 85%, many teams find), the more agile their code is. Which is to say, it is easier for them to keep the defects in the code to very low levels, and therefore easier for them to add features, make changes, and still deliver very low-defect code every iteration. After experimenting with different ways to keep test coverage up at those optimal levels, agile teams hit upon the practice of test-first programming.

Value stream mapping

Value stream mapping is a Lean-Agile management tool that helps organizations visualize the process steps needed to take a product from creation through delivery to end users. Value stream mapping helps you understand your business better so you can eliminate waste and improve process efficiency.

Web application security

Web application security refers to the protection of both browser endpoints, and the APIs they connect to, against attack from Magecart/formjacking-style attacks, malicious browser extensions, banking trojans, malvertisements, and other cyber security threats. When addressed properly—including JavaScript protection, threat detection, and limiting API connections to known good sites, along with defensive measures that can shut down web app functionality in the event of an attack—effective web application security enables customers to detect and protect against active threats, protecting businesses and consumers from data breaches and financial losses.

White-box cryptography

White-Box Cryptography uses encryption, obfuscation, and mathematical transformations to secure keys and critical data inside applications running in untrusted environments. Common practice is not to assume cryptographic keys will be stored in untrusted environments, making them vulnerable to application attacks, such as reverse engineering.

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